William D. Carrigan and Clive Webb, “‘Muerto por Unos Desconocidos (Killed by Persons Unknown)’:…
… Mob Violence against African Americans and Mexican Americans, ” in Beyond grayscale: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender when you look at the U.S. Southern and Southwest, ed. Stephanie Cole and Allison Parker (College facility, 2004), 35–74; William D. Carrigan and Clive Webb, “A Dangerous Experiment: The Lynching of Rafael Benavides, ” New Mexico Historical Review, 80 (summer time 2005), 265–92. For the Texas research study, see Nicholas Villaneuva Jr., “‘Sincerely Yours for Dignified Manhood’: Lynching, Violence, and American Manhood during the first many years of the Mexican Revolution, 1910–1914, ” Journal for the western, 49 (wintertime 2010), 41–48. On mob violence against “racial other people” into the West, see, as an example, Pfeifer, harsh Justice, 86–88; Pfeifer, Roots of harsh Justice, 46–50; and Scott Zesch, The Chinatown War: Chinese Los Angeles as well as the Massacre of 1871 (ny, 2012). Another ethnic group perceived as racially different in the postbellum South, see Clive Webb, “The Lynching of Sicilian Immigrants in the American South, 1886–1910, ” American Nineteenth Century History, 3 (Spring 2002), 45–76 on the lynching of 29 sicilians. In the lynching of Sicilians in Colorado, see Stephen J. Leonard, Lynching in Colorado, 1859–1919 (Boulder, 2002), 135–42.
Christopher Waldrep, the countless Faces of Judge Lynch: Extralegal Violence and Punishment in the usa (ny, 2002); Christopher Waldrep, ed., Lynching in the us: a brief history in papers (ny, 2006); Christopher Waldrep, African Us citizens Confront Lynching: methods of opposition through the Civil War towards the Civil Rights period (Lanham, 2008); William D. Carrigan and Christopher Waldrep, eds., Swift to Wrath: Lynching in Global Historical attitude (Charlottesville, 2013). Jonathan Markowitz, Legacies of Lynching: Racial Violence and Memory (Minneapolis, 2004), xxxi. On lynching into the context of Jim Crow tradition, see Grace Elizabeth Hale, Making Whiteness: The customs of Segregation within the Southern, 1890–1940 (ny, 1998), 199–238. For analyses of literary and artistic representations of lynching through the belated nineteenth through the mid-twentieth hundreds of years, see Jacqueline Goldsby, A Spectacular Secret: Lynching in American lifestyle and Literature (Chicago, 2006); and Sandy Alexandre, The qualities of Violence: Claims to Ownership in Representations of Lynching (Jackson, 2012). For narratives of southern and vigilantism that is western lynching, see Lisa Arellano, Vigilantes and Lynch Mobs: Narratives of Community and Nation (Philadelphia, 2012). For lynching into the context associated with Protestant culture for the postbellum American South, see Donald G. Mathews, “The Southern Rite of Human Sacrifice: Lynching into the United states South, ” Mississippi Quarterly, 62 (Winter–Spring 2008), 27–70. Amy Louise Wood, Lynching and Spectacle: Witnessing Racial Violence in America, 1890–1940 (Chapel Hill, 2009), 14. Fury, dir. Fritz Lang ( mgm, 1936); The Ox-Bow Incident, dir. William Wellman (Twentieth Century Fox, 1943). On lynching into the folk tradition of new york’s reduced Piedmont, see Bruce E. Baker, “North Carolina Lynching Ballads, ” in less than Sentence of Death, ed. Brundage, 219–46. On lynching in belated nineteenth- and early twentieth-century theater that is black see Koritha Mitchell, coping with Lynching: African American Lynching has, Performance, and Citizenship, 1890–1930 (Urbana, 2012). Sherrilyn A. Ifill, in the Courthouse Lawn: Confronting the Legacy of Lynching in the Twenty-First Century (Boston, 2007). For a residential area research that explored the long legacy of racially inspired lynchings in Marion, Indiana, in 1931, see James H. Madison, Lynching into the Heartland: Race and Memory in the us (nyc, 2001). For a synopsis of lynching in US culture, see Ashraf H. A. Rushdy, American Lynching ( brand brand New Haven, 2012). For the argument that an end-of-lynching discourse continues to contour and distort discussion of US mob physical violence, see Ashraf H. A. Rushdy, the termination of American Lynching (brand new Brunswick, 2012).
Crystal Feimster, Southern Horrors: Females as well as the Politics of Rape and Lynching (Cambridge, Mass., 2009). On African US women’s relationship to lynching, see Evelyn M. Simien, ed., Gender and Lynching: The Politics of Memory (nyc, 2011). For situation studies of lynchings of African US ladies in Georgia, Oklahoma, and sc, see Julie Buckner Armstrong, Mary Turner plus the Memory of Lynching (Athens, Ga., 2011); and Maria DeLongoria, “‘Stranger Fruit’: The Lynching of Ebony ladies, The instances of Rosa Jefferson and Marie Scott” (Ph.D. Diss., University of Missouri–Columbia, 2006). For a journalistic remedy for the lynching of two African US partners in Walton County, Georgia, in 1946, see Laura Wexler, Fire in a Canebrake: the very last Mass Lynching in http://www.camsloveaholics.com/rabbitscams-review/ the us (ny, 2003). Regarding the lynching of females and kids when you look at the West, see Helen McLure, you think Strange the Murder of Women and Children’: The American Culture of Collective Violence, 1675–1930” (Ph.D. Diss., Southern Methodist University, 2009)“‘ I suppose. For a listing of feminine lynching victims, see Kerry Segrave, Lynchings of females in the us: The cases that are recorded 1851–1946 (Jefferson, 2010). Claude A. Clegg III, difficult Ground: an account of Murder, Lynching, and Reckoning into the brand New Southern (Urbana, 2010); Terrence Finnegan, A Deed So Accursed: Lynching in Mississippi and sc, 1881–1940 (Charlottesville, 2013). On Mississippi’s respected record of racial mob violence, see Julius E. Thompson, Lynchings in Mississippi: a brief history, 1865–1965 (Jefferson, 2007). This Mob Will Surely Take My Life: Lynching in the Carolinas, 1871–1947 (London, 2008); and J. Timothy Cole, The Forest City Lynching of 1900: Populism, Racism, and White Supremacy in Rutherford County, North Carolina (Jefferson, 2003) on lynching in the Carolinas, see Bruce E. Baker.
Kidada E. Williams, They Left Great markings on me personally: African US Testimonies of Racial Violence from Emancipation to World War I ( brand brand New York, 2012). On African American reactions to mob violence, see Karlos Hill, “Resisting Lynching: Ebony Grassroots reactions to Lynching within the Mississippi and Arkansas Deltas, 1882–1938” (Ph.D. Diss., University of Illinois, 2009).
Present scholarship, specially that centered on civil legal rights activism, has begun to explore African US reactions to racial terror during the level that is local.
On black colored reactions to racial terror in fin-de-siecle Florida plus in 1960s and 1970s Alabama and Mississippi, respectively, see Paul Ortiz, Emancipation Betrayed: The Hidden reputation for Ebony Organizing and White Violence in Florida from Reconstruction into the Bloody Election of 1920 (Berkeley, 2006); Hasan Kwame Jeffries, Bloody Lowndes: Civil Rights and Ebony Power in Alabama’s Ebony Belt (nyc, 2010); and Akinyele Omowale Umoja, We Will Shoot Back: Armed Resistance when you look at the Mississippi Freedom Movement (nyc, 2013). Ifill, From The Courthouse Lawn, xix–xx. When it comes to Senate apology, see Congressional Record, 109 Cong., 1 sess., June 13, 2005, p. S6364–88. For news protection associated with the U.S. Senate apology see, as an example, Wendy Koch, “U.S. Senate Moves to Apologize for Injustice, ” usa Today, June 13, 2005; and Martin C. Evans, “An Apology for Old type of Terror: Senate Expects to Vote Tomorrow on Resolution regarding Its Failure to aid End Practice of Lynching, ” Newsday, June 12, 2005, p. A34. On efforts to memorialize lynchings in Duluth, Minnesota, in 1920 as well as in cost, Utah, in 1925, respectively, see Dora Apel, “Memorialization as well as its Discontents: America’s First Lynching Memorial, ” Mississippi Quarterly, 61 (Winter–Spring 2008); and Kimberley Mangun and Larry R. Gerlach, “Making Utah History: Press Coverage of this Robert Marshall Lynching, June 1925, ” in Lynching beyond Dixie, ed. Pfeifer, 143–47. The chains: In Montgomery, Ala., a Move to Remember Slavery Exactly Where It Happened, ” New York Times, Dec. 10, 2013, pp on an effort by Bryan Stevenson and the Equal Justice Initiative to erect memorials at lynching sites around the South, see Campbell Robertson, “Before the Battles and the protests. 17–18.